Today in AgBioView from* AgBioWorld, http://www.agbioworld.org, May 24, 2007
* GM Technology: Africa Should Not Stick in the Mud
* When Will We Tire of the Fear Mongers?
* Modern Biotechnology Provides Foundation for Enhancing Crops
* Plants That Produce More Vitamin C May Result From UCLA-Dartmouth Advance in Molecular Biology
* China Appeals For Sense Over Banana Virus Rumour
* Gene Researchers to Boost Cane Production
* Earth Liberation Front to 13 Years
* International Genetically Engineered Machine Competition
* New Issue of AgBioForum
GM Technology: Africa Should Not Stick in the Mud
- Josephat Juma, African Executive, May via http://www.truthabouttrade.org
A Nairobi-based plant pathologist, Florence Wambugu advised students to be more flexible and not just settle at having degrees. Speaking in UC Berkeley’s College of Natural Resources where she was keynote speaker, the crop expert told them that "Life calls for moving and not just becoming stuck someplace."
In a ceremony that was marred by protests from a handful of graduating seniors who disagree with her views on the use of biotechnology in combating hunger in Africa, the CEO of Africa Harvest Biotech Foundation International explained that moving forward entails taking risks.
At a time when over 200 million people in Sub-Saharan Africa are chronically hungry and undernourished; most agricultural activities are done on patches of impoverished soils; and pests, disease and natural disasters are putting the agricultural industry in jeopardy. Africa cannot afford the luxury of immobility and romanticizing hunger while other regions in the world are making advances in food sufficiency and speaking from a position of plenty.
Deployment of plant technology is a matter that African elites ought to embrace and craft ways that will make it trickle down to the smallholder farmer. Already, such simple technology as grafting is bearing much fruit in many areas. Farmers in Eastern Kenya who used to wait for over five years to eat from their traditional species of mango trees can now harvest their crop in less than a year, and are assured of more yields at short intervals- thanks to the grafting technology. Maize seeds that take a shorter time to mature have been developed to take care of populations living in rain-scarce areas. It is now possible to manufacture pest resistant varieties as well as incorporate certain food supplements in plants that are vital body nutrients, hence keeping disease at bay.
Plant technologies will keep millions of Africans fed and healthy. The use of GM will not only release the talent of 70 per cent of the population locked up in inefficient agricultural quests but will also lead to higher food production, lower food prices and weaning from food aid dependency. Recognizing this fact, Heads of State at the African Union Summit held in Addis Ababa early this year, endorsed a 20-year bio-technology action plan calling for cooperation among States in specific regions to bolster biotechnology research and address bio-safety concerns. It is hope that this action is not mere rhetoric.
US farmers who produce two-thirds of the world’s biotech crops save an estimated $216 million annually on weed control costs and make $19 million less in herbicide applications every year. Using non –till methods made possible by herbicide resistant soybeans, farmers prevent 247 million tons of topsoil from being eroded.
Jason Boschetti, a student graduating in conservation and resource studies from Berkeley’s College notes that GM crops benefit producing companies more than the farmer who uses them. The President of AfricaBio, Prof Diran Makinde, who is also working with New Partnership for African Development however feels that "the reason no GM crops are being grown in Africa is because various countries are still in the process of formulating regulatory procedures to legalize the production of GM crops."
The EU, which has been involved in protracted battles with the US over GM foods is slowly softening its stand, according to the International Agro Biotechnology Research Specialist, Willy de Greef. He says that the EU is no longer opposed to the development of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs). Six EU countries are currently planting GM crops, with several more hoping to start soon. Spain is leading the way with 60,000 hectares already planted. France, Czech Republic, Portugal, Germany and Slovakia, have also increased their acreages fivefold in 2006, from 1,500 hectares in 2005 to 8,500 hectares in 2006.
Africa should approach and embrace GM technology from an informed perspective. A combination of biotechnology and economic policies can play a significant role in reducing hunger in Africa. Africa needs more Florence Wambugus who will translate their book knowledge into solutions to problems facing Africa, consequently making the continent to move forward.
When Will We Tire of the Fear Mongers?
- Jay Lehr, River Cities Reader; May 23, 2007 http://www.rcreader.com
Jay LehrI have noticed throughout my life that there barely has been a day the news media was not trumpeting a foreboding event, an impending environmental danger, or some risky food or technological hazard clearly intended to generate fear.
Some of us are old enough to remember when cranberries were driven from supermarket shelves by a phony fear campaign. More of us remember the Alar apple scare. For a while we thought twice about putting a cell phone to our ear or passing beneath a power line.
Radon gas has yet to harm anyone, yet EPA still supports scary radio ads. Asbestos coatings on the pipes in our public schools never caused lung problems among our children, but all those coatings have been removed now. Asbestos levels in the schools remain unchanged.
Properly using insecticides in our homes never made anyone ill, but fewer are available to us today thanks to bans. Freon is gone from our aerosol cans and air conditioners, but ozone levels above the polar regions thicken and thin with the seasons as always, and skin cancer rates depend, as they always have, on how far we live from the equator and our exposure to midday sun.
Babies were never sickened by TRIS, the fire retardant in their jammies. DDT never caused cancer or thinned a single bird egg. It did stop malaria in its tracks and saved millions of lives, but it is not available much anymore. As a result, millions die or become sick each year.
Sea level may rise a foot this century, according to a new report from that font of unvarnished truth, the United Nations. But seas have been rising seven inches a century for at least the past 800 years. No one knows where former Vice President Al Gore gets his scary 20-foot prediction for sea-level rise.
Not one person has ever become ill from a genetically modified food or one irradiated to reduce bacteria, yet both of these healthful technologies are impeded by the fear-mongers and their partners, the risk-averse bureaucrats.
Moderate trans fat in our diets causes no harm, but lack of exercise does. Yet we are outlawing trans fat, I suppose because we cannot mandate exercise. You can no longer take Vioxx for your arthritis because folks with known heart disease might get their hands on it and minimally increase their chance of a heart attack.
Come to think of it, I cannot think of a single environmental or public health "crisis" that has ever proved to be true. They just fade away as time and reality wear them thin. Eventually they fall into the shadow of the next "fear du jour."
I once was mistakenly confident that all this would change at midnight on January 1, 2000. I believed the merchants of fear had made the mistake every scam artist knows to avoid: predicting a specific event on a specific date. The advent of the new millennium, they predicted, would cause the world to shake and reverberate with the catastrophe brought about by our predicted inability to re-program our computers.
Wrong! Wrong! Wrong! Yet, while we proved quite capable of solving the computer-programing problem, we appear to have learned nothing from that false alarm or the alarmists who sounded it. We awoke the next morning and shook off the fact that the Earth remained in a smooth rotation around its axis.
I recognize now that we are all programmed to fear the unknown with unbridled conviction. I suspect this condition was passed down from our ancestors who once lived in caves, hiding from the wild beasts outside, which could readily devour them. Those cave-dwellers who ventured out with little discretion often did not return to advance the human race with their progeny. Those who hid quietly in the cave, controlled by their fears, lived to bear children, who passed on their fear genes to their children and so on until, many generations later, we have them.
Geneticists are actually on track to locate those genes in our DNA, but it is not likely we will ever want to remove them. They play an important role in our survival, not to mention inclining most of us to heed our mom's admonitions not to touch our tongue to a frozen pipe, or not to venture out onto thin ice, or not to touch the hot burner on a stove, and of course to look both ways when crossing the street.
But now that we are grown up, shouldn't we be able to distinguish between real and unwarranted fears? Shouldn't we notice that past environmental and public health "crises" never were true, and shouldn't that realization lead us to stop overreacting each time a new doomsday scenario appears in the daily newspapers?
Skepticism isn't a bad thing when it comes to dealing with con men, telephone marketers ... and environmentalists and "public-health advocates." Should we not, by now, know to wait until additional, more-credible information comes our way?
There apparently are people who gain pleasure and often money from watching us cringe in fear of the unknown. When, if ever, will we show them we're made of sterner stuff than that?
Jay Lehr, Ph.D., is science director for The Heartland Institute and can be reached at (email@example.com).
Modern Biotechnology Provides Foundation for Enhancing Crops
- Becky Varner, News OK, May 23, 2007 http://newsok.com
Traditional biotechnology started thousands of years ago as farmers learned to grow plants with desirable traits such as higher yields, better taste and more resistance to drought.
Through the years, farmers replanted seeds or cross-pollinated from their best crops. They would continue to select grains until a plant with more desirable traits emerged. This process took lots of time and was sometimes unpredictable.
Today, modern biotechnology offers more precise and faster methods to establish improved foods that are abundant, tasty, safe and nutritious.
As scientists learned more about DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), the genetic coding in living things, that knowledge has been applied to growing produce. This is simply applying plant genetics and science to improving our food quality and production. These advances in produce production are sometimes referred to as genetically modified food or "GM food.”
Agricultural scientists can select specific genes in produce that carry specific traits such as better nutrient quality or disease resistance to grow more desirable produce. A single gene from an unrelated plant can be transferred to another plant. Scientists also can remove a specific gene to delete undesirable traits in produce.
There are multiple benefits of modern food biotechnology. One benefit is healthier and higher yielding crops. This can mean lower production costs for the farmer. An example is the enhancement of some varieties of corn to contain a common soil bacterium called Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). This allows the corn to protect itself from some insects that can destroy plants and that can reduce the use of insecticides. Other crops are being developed to resist plant viruses and other diseases. Plants naturally have the ability to produce compounds to protect against invading organisms. Natural toxins are found in many foods, and scientists can identify the genes that produce natural toxins.
Another benefit of genetically improved crops is weather-resistance. This can enable some crops to withstand severe weather, extending the growing season and growing regions to make more fruits, vegetables and grains available throughout the year. Regions with poor soil conditions or poor climates can become productive agriculture land. This can also reduce crop loss for farmers. Food biotechnology can develop ways for more food to be grown on less land.
Transferring specific genetic traits in plants can produce fruits and vegetables with ripening qualities that allow them to be shipped farther and longer without spoilage for the arrival of fresher produce with better flavor. Produce can also be grown to resist mold. Modern food technology could make foods safer by detection of food-borne bacteria and viruses. This could result in a decline of food-borne illness.
Some vegetable oils have been enhanced to have less saturated and more monounsaturated fatty acids. Soybeans, canola and other seeds providing oil have been enhanced to have less saturated fat and more oleic acid, is a beneficial fatty acid.
Modern food biotechnology can allow for more advanced crossbreeding of foods, yielding new varieties of foods. An example seen in grocery stores in recent years is Broccoflower, a cross between broccoli and cauliflower that results in a light green cauliflower. You may have seen miniature foods such as a tiny bunch of bananas, smaller pineapples and baby ears of corn.
Products developed through food biotechnology are subjected to the same stringent standards of labeling and safety by the Food and Drug Administration as all foods sold in the United States. These foods are tested and regulated. Evaluation methods used by manufacturers to ensure safety for consumers are endorsed internationally by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Health Organization. Foods developed through biotechnology have the same food labels as other foods; in some cases, additional labeling is required.
Food biotechnology is developing in many parts of the world and offers great promise for feeding the world. There are many potential benefits of food biotechnology, and as research continues, more benefits will be discovered. Food biotechnology is an approach for producing a high-quality, abundant, healthful and less expensive food supply for the world and for protecting the environment. Nutrient-enhanced crops could help address problems of malnutrition in various parts of the world.
Plants That Produce More Vitamin C May Result From UCLA-Dartmouth Advance in Molecular Biology
- May 23, 2007 Contact: Stuart Wolpert ( firstname.lastname@example.org ) http://newsroom.ucla.edu/page.asp?RelNum=7960
UCLA and Dartmouth scientists have identified a crucial enzyme in plant vitamin C synthesis, which could lead to enhanced crops. The discovery now makes clear the entire 10-step process by which plants convert glucose into vitamin C, an important antioxidant in nature.
"If we can find ways to enhance the activity of this enzyme, it may be possible to engineer plants to make more vitamin C and produce better crops," said Steven Clarke, UCLA professor of chemistry and biochemistry, director of UCLA's Molecular Biology Institute and co-author of the research study, to be published as a 'Paper of the Week' in the Journal of Biological Chemistry and currently available online.
"We hit on gold," Clarke said, "because we now have a chance to improve human nutrition and to increase the resistance of plants to oxidative stress. Plants may grow better with more vitamin C, especially with more ozone in the atmosphere due to pollution."
Carole Linster, a UCLA postdoctoral fellow in chemistry and biochemistry and lead author of the study, discovered the controlling enzyme, GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase, which serves as the biosynthetic pathway by which plants manufacture vitamin C.
"Our finding leads to attractive approaches for increasing the vitamin C content in plants," Linster said. "We now have two strategies to provide enhanced protection against oxidative damage: Stimulate the endogenous activity of the identified enzyme or engineer transgenic plants which overexpress the gene that encodes the enzyme."
When life on Earth began, there was almost no oxygen, Clarke noted. "Two billion years ago, plants devised an efficient way to get sunlight to make sugar from carbon dioxide that produced oxygen as a waste product; that waste product probably killed off most of all living species at that time," Clarke said. "The only organisms that survived developed defenses against it, and one of the best defenses is vitamin C. Plants learned how to make vitamin C to protect themselves."
Prior to the new research, vitamin C may have been the most important small molecule whose biosynthetic pathway remained a mystery. An essential vitamin for humans, vitamin C is also an important antioxidant for animals and plants. Humans do not have the ability to make vitamin C and get it from dietary sources, especially from plants. It was not until 1998 that a biosynthetic pathway was proposed to explain how plants make this compound. Research confirmed much of the pathway, although one crucial missing link continued to baffle scientists and remained unknown until this new research.
Clarke, who studies the biochemistry of aging, said the finding is an example of serendipity in science. The research started as an effort to understand the role of a gene in Caenorhabditis elegans, a tiny worm used as a model for aging studies by Tara Gomez, a former UCLA undergraduate in Clarke's laboratory and now a graduate student at the California Institute of Technology. The gene's sequence suggested that it was related to a family of genes altered in cancer, known as HIT genes; these genes are studied in the laboratory of Charles Brenner at the Norris Cotton Cancer Center at Dartmouth Medical School.
Collaboration between Clarke's and Brenner's laboratories revealed a similarity between the worm gene and the product of the VTC2 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana, a small roadside plant. Mutations in this gene had been previously linked to low levels of vitamin C. Linster and Gomez were able to express and to purify the plant VTC2 enzyme from bacteria. The research team, led by Linster, produced the GDP-L-galactose substrate and reconstituted in test tubes the mysterious seventh step in vitamin C synthesis.
Clarke and Brenner liken the first six steps in vitamin C synthesis to a roadmap in which there are multiple possible routes from glucose to a variety of cellular compounds. Once the GDP-L-galactose compound takes the exit marked "VTC2," however, the atoms are reconfigured to make vitamin C. The remaining three steps, like a curving driveway, "require some turns but no real choices and no backing up," Brenner said.
The researchers are still studying what VTC2-related genes do in animals and how these genes may relate to aging and cancer. The research was federally funded by the National Institute on Aging, the National Institute of General Medical Sciences and the National Science Foundation, and by a fellowship Linster received from the government of Luxembourg. The scientific team included UCLA researcher Lital Adler; Princeton undergraduate and former UCLA research assistant Brian D. Young; and Dartmouth researcher Kathryn Christensen.
China Appeals For Sense Over Banana Virus Rumour
- Atef Sa'ad, Reuters via The Star (Malaysia), May 24, 2007 http://thestar.com.my/
China dismissed a rumour on Thursday that bananas grown on a southern island might contain viruses similar to SARS, the latest and most improbable in a series of food-safety scares to hit the country.
"It is purely a rumour and it is impossible for bananas to contain SARS-like viruses," the Agriculture Ministry said, referring to text messages some cell phone users had received. "The spreaders of the false information either have inadequate relevant scientific knowledge or have ulterior motives," it said, adding police had been asked to investigate.
The rumour comes at a time when food products from China have come under scrutiny around the world after a spate of safety breaches involving toxins in products from pet food to toothpaste. U.S. health officials are beginning to check all shipments of toothpaste coming from China, following reports of tainted products in the Dominican Republic and Panama.
The rumour about bananas from the sub-tropical island of Hainan had no scientific support as there had never been a case of humans contracting viruses from plants, the Agriculture Ministry said in a statement on its Web site (www.agri.gov.cn). Hainan bananas were subject to rumours they caused cancer earlier this year when the island's plantations suffered a fungus blight called yellow wilt or, coincidentally, Panama disease.
SARS, the symptoms of which are similar to those of flu, spread as far afield as Canada from south China before it was brought under control in 2003. It killed close to 800 people out of 8,000 known to have been infected.
Gene Researchers to Boost Cane Production
- ABC News (Australia), May 24, 2007 http://www.abc.net.au
The Australian Research Council has given almost $1 million to the University of Queensland (UQ) for further research into making sugarcane more productive by modifying its genes. Researchers have already developed genes to boost the crop's sugar content and extend its uses to producing bio-fuels.
But UQ Professor Robert Birch says sugarcane has so many different genes it can mysteriously turn some off - meaning the introduced ones do not work. "This project is about getting us over that special problem in sugarcane by understanding how come it's so special in turning off genes and letting us get those variety of different genes now exploited in a useful and practical way," he said.
Professor Birch believes sugarcane is probably the most complex crop grown genetically. He says sugar cane has five times the number of genes humans have. "It's probably got some tricks that turn off lots of extra copies it doesn't need, and by accident if you like, it's turning off introduced genes that we're putting in there," he said.
If successful, some of those genes would help boost the crop's sugar content. "That's very important for the profitability and economic sustainability of the industry," Professor Birch said.
They could also extend its uses to producing bio-fuels. It is hoped small-scale field tests will be conducted in three to four years.
Earth Liberation Front Arsonist Sentenced to 13 Years
- Jeff Barnard, The Associated Press,The Seattle Times May 24, 2007 http://seattletimes.nwsource.com
Eugene, Ore. - Declaring fires set at a police station, an SUV dealership and a tree farm acts of terrorism, a federal judge Wednesday sentenced the first of 10 members of a radical environmental group to 13 years in prison.
U.S. District Judge Ann Aiken commended Stanislas Meyerhoff for having the courage to "do the right thing" by informing on his fellow arsonists after his arrest. But he declared his efforts to save the earth by setting fires were misguided and cowardly, and contributed to an unfair characterization of others working legally to protect the environment as radicals.
"It was your intent to scare and frighten other people through a very dangerous and psychological act - arson," Aiken told Meyerhoff. "Your actions included elements of terrorism to achieve your goal. "The fact that your actions were completely irrational doesn't mitigate this. Nor does the fact that no one was hurt."
Meyerhoff, 29, has admitted to being a member of a Eugene cell of the Earth Liberation Front (ELF) known as The Family, which was responsible for more than 20 arsons from 1996 through 2001 in five Western states that did $40 million in damage.
Meyerhoff was involved in fires at a Eugene police substation, a Eugene SUV dealership, an Oregon tree farm, federal wild-horse corrals in Wyoming and California, and a Vail, Colo., ski resort. He also helped topple a high-voltage transmission line tower in Oregon.
After a member of the cell, Jacob Ferguson, agreed to turn informant and wear a hidden recording device, Meyerhoff and five others were arrested, starting in December 2005. Soon after his arrest, Meyerhoff turned informant as well, which resulted in more arrests.
Defense attorney Terri Wood said Ferguson has a deal with the prosecution that involves one count of arson and no prison time. Before sentencing, Meyerhoff denounced the ELF, saying its goals of promoting a public discussion about stopping practices that harm the earth actually cut off debate and harmed people.
"I was ignorant of history and economy and acted from a faulty and narrow vision as an ordinary bigot," Meyerhoff read from his four-page handwritten statement, his voice breaking at times. "A million times over I apologize ... to all of you hard-working business owners, employees, researchers, firemen, investigators, attorneys and all citizens whose property was destroyed, whose holidays were ruined, whose welfare was thwarted, and whose sleep was troubled."
Under federal sentencing guidelines, Aiken said, Meyerhoff was eligible for 30 years to life in prison. However, prosecutors recommended reducing that to 15 years, eight months, based on his cooperation with investigators. Aiken further reduced that to 13 years, noting that Meyerhoff showed courage by naming names and opening himself to retribution.
Defense and prosecution lawyers declined comment after the sentencing. Prior to sentencing, Wood asked for leniency, arguing that most of the fires were not acts of terrorism because they were set at businesses, not government facilities.
The prosecution countered that based on communiqués issued after the fires, the blazes were meant to retaliate against the U.S. Forest Service for allowing a Vail ski resort to expand into a national forest, the University of Washington for genetic-engineering research and the government for prosecuting radicals who set earlier fires at the SUV dealership.
"The communiqués are powerful, powerful evidence that the defendants and Mr. Meyerhoff intended to influence the conduct of government," said Assistant U.S. Attorney Kirk Engdall. "It is our position that the terrorism enhancement clearly applies to Mr. Meyerhoff." Aiken rejected the argument that the ski-resort arson was terrorism, noting that the communiqué made no direct reference to the Forest Service.
But she declared that a fire set at a Eugene police substation was terrorism because it was a direct attack on government. The Romania Chevrolet SUV dealership arson was terrorism because the communiqué said it was revenge for sending arsonist Jeff Luers to prison for 22 years. And the Jefferson Poplar Farm arson was terrorism because the communiqué spoke of affecting pending legislation.
GENEART sponsors MIT's 2007 International Genetically Engineered Machine Competition (iGEM) May , 5:36 AM EST
MARKETWIRE May 23, 2007 REGENSBURG, GERMANY http://www.genengnews.com/news/bnitem.aspx?name=
- 55 student teams from all over the world are participating in this year's iGEM competition. Their goal is to design synthetic biological machines which can operate in living cells.
- GENEART, primary DNA synthesis sponsor of iGEM, to provide teams with 100,000 base pairs of synthetic DNA and additional cash donation.
GENEART AG and MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA) announce today their collaboration during this year's International Genetically Engineered Machine Competition (iGEM). GENEART will provide 100,000 base pairs of new synthetic DNA constructs for iGEM teams at a highly subsidized rate and a cash donation to the iGEM program. During this year's competition, hundreds of undergraduate students will build biological machines from standard, interchangeable parts and operate these machines in living cells. The Registry of Standard Biological Parts, a genetic library at MIT, will provide a kit of standardized parts for the genetic machines. The teams will make new biological parts of their own design and have them synthesized by GENEART. These new parts will then be added to the Registry for the teams in next year's competition.
iGEM started in 2004 with five teams and has grown to 55 teams this year. The teams are from countries around the world, including the United States, Canada, Europe, India, China, and Turkey. In November, the teams will present their summer's work at the iGEM Competition Jamboree at MIT. Awards will be presented for the most interesting projects.
Last summer, iGEM teams engineered amazing biological machines often with successful applications in live cells. For example, a team from Edinburgh, Scotland modified E. coli (bacteria) to detect low concentrations of arsenic in well water by changing its acidity, or pH level. Their discovery is particularly useful in developing countries where arsenic often contaminates drinking water, causing skin lesions and cancer. Another team of MIT students modified E. coli, a standard but foul-smelling organism in microbiological labs, to smell like mint leaves or bananas. One objective was to enable microbiologists to work in more pleasantly scented biological labs.
"The possibilities in Synthetic Biology have the potential for another industrial revolution. Potential applications span from the sustainable and cost efficient production of complex molecules for the pharmaceutical or the food industry, to the generation of energy sources such as hydrogen by microorganisms. As the world wide leader in gene synthesis, we are an important part of this new development by designing and delivering the necessary BioBricks (biological parts). We are therefore happy to support this MIT initiative to supply young scientists all over the world with the resources necessary to be part of this new scientific revolution." Prof. Dr. Ralf Wagner, CEO / CSO of GENEART
"Today, microbiologists spend too much of their time manipulating DNA and too much of their creativity finding shortcuts to ease this burden. Direct synthesis of DNA decouples the work of designing a biological system from its fabrication, accelerating progress in biology and permitting a broader range of designs. The cost of synthetic DNA has been decreasing but is still out of reach for many students. This generous offer from GENEART gives the students in the iGEM competition a chance to live in the future, a few years from now, when DNA synthesis will be the least expensive way to manipulate DNA and will be available to students like those in iGEM. We are grateful to GENEART for their support of iGEM and for providing this unique opportunity to the teams." Randy Rettberg, Director of iGEM, MIT.
New Issue of AgBioForum
Volume 10 // Number 1 // 2007 web dated May 15, 2007
* The Net Gain to Cotton Farmers of a Natural Refuge Plan for Bollgard® Cotton - N.E. Piggott & M.C. Marra
* The Long-Run Impact of Corn-Based Ethanol on the Grain, Oilseed, and Livestock Sectors with Implications for Biotech Crops. - A. Elobeid, S. Tokgoz, D.J. Hayes, B.A. Babcock, & C.E. Hart
* The Cost of Product Development of Bt Corn Event MON810 in the Philippines - A.J. Manalo & G.P. Ramon
* Insect Resistance Management Plans: The Farmers' Perspective - C. Alexander
* Inequality and GM Crops: A Case-Study of Bt Cotton in India - S. Morse, R. Bennett, & Y. Ismael
* A Review of International Labeling Policies of Genetically Modified Food to Evaluate India's Proposed Rule - G.P. Gruère & S.R. Rao